WW International

Click here to get this post in PDF

This article is about the company. For the diet, see Weight Watchers (diet).

WW International, Inc., formerly Weight Watchers International, Inc., is a global company headquartered in the U.S. that offers various products and services to assist in healthy habits, including weight loss and maintenance, fitness, and mindset such as the Weight Watchers comprehensive diet program.[2] Founded in 1963 by Queens, New York City homemaker Jean Nidetch, as of 2018 it delivers its program in three combined ways: online via its mobile app and website, coaching online or by phone, and optional in-person meetings around the world.[3] The core philosophy behind Weight Watchers programs is to use a science-driven approach to help participants lose weight by forming healthy habits, eating smarter, getting more exercise, and receiving support.[2][4]

On September 24, 2018, the company announced a rebrand to “WW” taking effect immediately, to reflect its development from focusing on weight loss to overall health and wellness.[5][6]


  • 1 Company history
    • 1.1 Inception
    • 1.2 Launch, IPO, and sale to Heinz
    • 1.3 Private-equity acquisition and second IPO
    • 1.4 2015 to present
  • 2 Business model
    • 2.1 Products and services
    • 2.2 Weight-loss plans and formats
  • 3 Reception
  • 4 Leadership and spokespersons
    • 4.1 Corporate governance
    • 4.2 Spokespersons
  • 5 See also
  • 6 References
  • 7 External links

Company history[edit]


Weight Watchers was conceived by Jean Nidetch, a housewife and mother living in Queens, New York City, who had been overweight most of her life and had tried pills, hypnosis, and numerous fad diets, all of which only led to regained weight.[7] When in 1961 at the age of 38 she weighed 214 pounds and an acquaintance mistook her for being pregnant, she entered a free 10-week weight-loss program sponsored by the New York City Board of Health’s obesity clinic.[8][9] The program was called the “Prudent Diet” and had been developed in the 1950s by Dr. Norman Jolliffe, head of the board’s Bureau of Nutrition.[10][11][12][13][14] The plan included the dictums “No skipping meals. Fish five times a week. Two pieces of bread and two glasses of skim milk a day. More fruits and vegetables.”[15] and eating liver once a week.[16] It prohibited alcohol, sweets, and fatty foods,[7] included a list of allowed foods and the quantities allowed,[17] and encouraged weighing portions.[18]

Although Nidetch lost 20 pounds on the ten-week program,[8] the way the clinic’s leader imparted information at the weekly meetings was not to her liking, and discussion was discouraged;[19][20][16] in addition, Nidetch’s motivation was threatened by her urge to binge on Mallomar cookies.[7][21][12][22] She therefore began a weekly support group in her apartment, initially inviting six overweight friends,[23][7][24] which within two months grew to 40 women each week.[7] She introduced the “Prudent Diet”, a single page from the New York City Board of Health,[25] to her fellow weight-loss seekers,[26][10] and the group provided empathy, rapport, mutual understanding, support, and sharing of stories and ideas.[27][18][10][16][23][7] The meetings also included a weekly weigh-in,[28] and Nidetch developed a rewards system including prizes for weight-loss milestones.[29] In October 1962 Nidetch achieved her target weight of 142 pounds, and maintained the weight loss; according to her she never exceeded 150 pounds thereafter.[23][7]

As interest grew Nidetch coached groups in other neighborhoods.[28] One group was at the home of Al and Felice Lippert, and after the Lipperts successfully lost weight, Al, who was a businessman in the garment industry, talked Nidetch into making a business out of her endeavor.[30]

Launch, IPO, and sale to Heinz[edit]

With Nidetch as president and evangelist, Nidetch and the Lipperts launched Weight Watchers Inc. in Queens in 1963, renting public meeting venues and initially charging participants $2 (the price of a movie at the time) per weekly meeting;[31][32][30] the first official meeting, in May 1963, attracted 400 attendees.[33][34] Nidetch led groups and trained others to lead groups as well.[35]

Al Lippert, in charge of the business end of the company, franchised it in 1964, using a razor/razorblade model of an inexpensive franchise fee offered to graduates from the company’s programs who had kept the weight off,[36][37] with 10% of gross earnings as royalties to the parent company.[30][38][28] By 1967, the company was international, with 102 franchises in the United States, Canada, Puerto Rico, Great Britain, and Israel.[15]

Felice Lippert was in charge of recipe development, nutrition, and food research; the first Weight Watchers cookbook, published in 1966, sold more than 1.5 million copies.[38][39] By January 1968 the company had more than one million members worldwide, and Weight Watchers Magazine was launched, publishing 300,000 copies of its first issue.[40][41]

By 1968 the company had 91 franchises in 43 states,[42] and to expand further overseas Al Lippert took the company public as Weight Watchers International Inc.; the initial 225,000 shares, offered at $11.25 a share, began trading enthusiastically, rising to over $30 by the end of the first day.[43][28][38] Lippert also initiated lines of Weight Watchers prepared food, spas, camps for overweight kids, and weight-loss products such as scales and travel kits.[44][43]

Nidetch, with her slim well-dressed image, charisma, and flair for motivational speaking, remained the public face of the company.[45][46][24][39] In 1970 she published The Memoir of a Successful Loser: The Story of Weight Watchers, which documented the original Weight Watchers plan.[47] In 1973 she resigned as president of the company to devote herself to public relations – traveling, being interviewed, and speaking to large audiences about the program’s success.[38][7][48]

In the mid 1970s the company moved away from simply dieting and more toward “eating management”, developing tailored options to meet the varying needs of its members, including a specialized food plan for the management of weight-loss plateaus, and a maintenance plan.[49][47][50]

By the late 1970s the company and its varied operations and divisions had grown too large and complex for Lippert to manage, and it was sold, along with its food licensees, to the H. J. Heinz Company in 1978 for $72 million.[44][51] Lippert remained chairman and signed on to remain CEO for a few years,[44] and Nidetch remained in her role as consultant.[35] In the late 1980s, the company’s three divisions – support-group meetings division, food line, and publications and media – were still increasingly profitable year-over-year.[38]

Private-equity acquisition and second IPO[edit]

In 1990, with competition from Jenny Craig, Slim-Fast, Healthy Choice, and Nutrisystem, earnings began to decline.[36][38] The Heinz parent company competed by introducing newly developed Weight Watchers “Smart Ones” frozen meals.[36][38] In 1997, to replace its previous system of counting and weighing food, Weight Watchers introduced the simpler and more flexible POINTS system, a proprietary algorithmic formula which quantifies a food portion for the purposes of healthy weight loss based on carbohydrates, fat, and fiber content.[52][53][54]

In 1999 Heinz, while retaining the rights to the Weight Watchers name for use in certain
food categories,[55][36][1] sold the company to the private equity firm Artal Luxembourg, for $735 million in a leveraged buyout led by the Invus Group, which manages Artal and which is run by Raymond Debbane.[56] Artal put up $224 million and Weight Watchers financed the rest of the buyout with debt.[56] Debbane became chairman of Weight Watchers.[57][58] In 2001 Debbane organized an initial public offering for Weight Watchers and took it public again.[56] As of 2018, Artal remains the company’s largest shareholder.[59][60][61]

In 2000 the new owners reacquired the license to publish Weight Watchers Magazine from Time Inc., where Heinz had offloaded it in 1996 and where it had performed poorly; circulation recovered quickly, and the magazine was redesigned in 2003.[38]

In 2001 the company launched a multi-functional website, WeightWatchers.com, with free information on weight loss, healthy lifestyle, and meeting locations, and subscription information and tools for customers to track or supplement meetings, point values, favorite foods, and personalized suggestions.[47] In 2007, it launched Weight Watchers Online for Men.[62][63][39][64]

In late 2010 Weight Watchers overhauled its POINTS system and replaced it with PointsPlus (ProPoints outside the U.S.);[65][66][67] under the new system, fruits and non-starchy vegetables were zero points, and processed foods had higher points than they did before.[68][69][70][71][72][73]

From 2012 to 2015, although it had its own app and e-tools since 2009,[74][75][76] the company faced stiff competition from free smartphone fitness apps, many of which included a social-media group-support system, and from wearable fitness monitors such as Fitbit.[77][76][78][79][80]

2015 to present[edit]

In October 2015, Oprah Winfrey partnered with Weight Watchers, giving the company and its stock a boost.[81][82] Winfrey bought a 10% stake in the company, became its spokesperson, joined its board of directors, and lost weight on the program,[81] and she helped launch a new holistic lifestyle and fitness program called “Beyond the Scale”.[83][84][85][86][87][88] The late-2015 Oprah effect[89] did not prevent a subsequent downward trend in 2016, largely attributed to challenges from Nutrisystem and the proliferation of free apps and websites aimed at helping people manage their weight,[90][91][92] but linked also by some to a faulty initial tech rollout of the new program’s app,[93][94][95] and James Chambers, who had been CEO for three years, resigned effective September 30, 2016.[90] He was replaced as CEO in July 2017 by Mindy Grossman, who had previously revamped and turned around HSN.[96][97]

In December 2017, the company introduced WW Freestyle (called WW Flex outside the U.S.),[98] which allows people to carry over unused “SmartPoints” through the week, and lists more than 200 zero-points foods, including various lean proteins, that do not need to be tracked.[99][100][101][102] In February 2018 CEO Grossman announced a new direction and purpose for the company: to move beyond mere dieting to being a “partner in health and wellness” and inspiring healthy habits for real life.[103][104][105] Subscriptions to Weight Watchers rebounded significantly by mid 2018,[106] credited to Winfrey’s influence and to Grossman’s tri-fold efforts of revamping the program, improving tech offerings, and giving the company a more broad-based appeal.[107][108][109][110][111][112]

In September 2018, the company re-branded itself WW International, Inc., as it shifted its focus more broadly to overall health and wellness, including fitness.[113][5] It adopted a new tagline, “Wellness that Works”,[113][114][115] and announced a variety of changes, to be rolled out by year’s end beginning in early October.[115] A weight-loss goal is no longer necessary to join the WW program,[116][117] and its optional weekly in-person meetings have been renamed Wellness Workshops.[118][119]

A new program, WellnessWins, rewards members for small, everyday behaviors that encourage healthier habits, which are redeemable for exclusive products, services, and experiences.[4][120][119][121][122] WW’s social media-like digital community Connect will have micro-community Groups, where like-minded individuals can discuss their interests such as hobbies, life situations, activities, and diets such as gluten-free or vegan.[4][123][119][124][125][121]

WW’s updated app is configured to help people reach all their wellness goals, not just weight loss.[126][5][115] Its FitPoints system is being updated and personalized so that individuals choose activities which have the biggest impact on their health.[5][115] The updated WW app is also integrated with Amazon Alexa and Google Assistant.[124][121][120] The company is also partnering with the meditation app Headspace to offer customized mindfulness content for members.[126][122][125][127][123][4]

Business model[edit]

Weight Watchers’ business model is one of a subscription-based program of support,[128][129] plus a variety of purchasable products, media, services, and technologies. Its brand identity has been framed around Weight Watchers being a community,[130][131][132] and its website is intrinsic to its effectiveness.[130][129] Particularly in the 21st century, the company has increasingly marketed itself as a health and wellness brand rather than a weight-loss brand,[132][133][4] and its dietary plans emphasize fruits, vegetables, lean proteins, and foods high in whole grains and low in trans fats.[134][135] Also in the 21st century, the company has increasingly tried to effectively and competitively balance its digital and offline offerings.[136][137] As of 2018, the program offers weight-loss support via either online and digital participation, tools, and coaching,[138] wellness coaching, weekly in-person support-group meetings, plus online and digital tools,[139] or personalized coaching, online and digital tools, and unlimited phone support.[140]

Products and services[edit]

Weight Watchers’ primary sources of income are subscriptions to the program,[1][121] which as of 2018 has three formats to combine and select from: online via its mobile app and website, coaching online or by phone, and optional in-person meetings around the world.[3]

The company provides a weight-management program (WW Freestyle) and a food plan (SmartPoints); customers can participate in the program via in-person group meetings and/or digitally, and are provided with individualized information, support, and coaching.[1][3]

It also receives income from Weight Watchers–branded services and products, which include publications such as Weight Watchers magazines, Weight Watchers cookbooks, and food guides and restaurant guides with points values.[1][141] It sells its own bars and snacks, and licenses the Weight Watchers trademark to a variety of prepared foods, beverages, and other products and services.[1][141]

Weight-loss plans and formats[edit]

The original Weight Watchers dietary plan in the 1960s was roughly based on the “Prudent Diet”, developed by Dr. Norman Jolliffe at the New York City Board of Health.[142][143][54][10][144] It was based around lean meat, fish, skim milk, and fruits and vegetables, and it banned alcohol, sweets, and fatty foods.[7] It had lists of allowed and prohibited foods,[145][146] and was more structured than subsequent versions of the Weight Watchers program.[147] It recommended weighing food portions, and prohibited skipping meals or counting calories.[145][147]

The company has regularly changed and updated its diet plans and formats, to reflect current nutritional and obesity science and to accommodate consumer awareness and demand.[148]

  • In 1979 Weight Watchers introduced PepStep (or Personal Exercise Plan), a walking or stair-climbing exercise program to benefit members’ weight loss, developed by a doctor specializing in exercise and cardiac rehabilitation.[149][150] With this additional element Weight Watchers became the one of the first weight-loss companies, along with the Pritikin program, to promote the importance of regular exercise.[150][151][152]
  • By 1980, the company expanded its dietary plan to allow for substitutions and more flexibility. It introduced three routines: a “full choice” plan with the most options; a “limited choice” plan with fewer options and less leeway; and a “no choice” plan with no substitutions and no options, which was the most calorie-restrictive and was to be followed for no more than two weeks.[147][153][154][155]
  • In 1984 the company added Quick Start, which was a more spartan, temporary eating plan designed to produce faster, motivation-boosting weight loss in the first few weeks of the program.[54][38][156] It was the company’s first exchange-based diet, where foods within categories could be exchanged for each other.[147] This was expanded in 1986 to Quick Start Plus, with higher-fat options and Personal Choice options.[147][157]
  • In 1984 Weight Watchers also launched its At Work program, held for groups of 15 or more in office places, for people who were otherwise unable to attend community meetings.[158] The meetings are held either before work, during the lunch break, or after work,[159] and the fees are usually subsidized by the employer.[160]
  • In 1988, Weight Watchers launched the Quick Success program, a plan that was easier and more flexible, particularly for working women.[161][162][163][164] It also allowed for a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet, and increased the minimum daily vegetable intake from two to three.[147]
  • In 1997 Weight Watchers completely replaced its exchange-based diets with the simpler and more flexible POINTS system (also originally called 1-2-3 Success), a proprietary algorithmic formula which quantifies a food portion for the purposes of healthy weight loss based on carbohydrates, fat, and fiber content.[52][53][54][147]
  • In 2000 the company rolled out Winning Points, a more personalized version of the POINTS system, which encompassed self-observation, behavior modification, and fitness and activity, and which did not have any food exclusions.[159][165][166]
  • In 2004, Weight Watchers launched the Turn Around program,[147] which gave people two plans to choose from, and aimed to teach participants how to eat normal food, in sensible portions, and to increase their exercise.[167] The Flex Plan option allowed dieters to eat anything they wanted as long as they stayed within their points allowance; activity points could be earned by exercise.[168][169] The Core Plan option (later known as “Simply Filling”) dispensed with points entirely and included a list of foods that could be eaten “until satisfied”, and a list of foods to be avoided.[169][168]
  • In December 2008, Weight Watchers eliminated the Core Plan and introduced the Momentum Plan, designed to help members understand how consuming certain filling foods helped them to eat less and prevent overeating.[168][170][171][172]
  • In late 2010 Weight Watchers overhauled its POINTS system and replaced it with PointsPlus (ProPoints outside the U.S.);[65][66][67] under the new system, fruits and non-starchy vegetables are zero points, and processed foods have higher points than they did before.[68][69][70][71][72][73]
  • In December 2012 the company rolled out Weight Watchers 360, which did not change its PointsPlus plan but added behavioral modification and support, mindfulness, control of and planning for one’s eating environment, and new apps, and also added an optional wearable fitness monitor to purchase called ActiveLink.[173][174][175][176][177]
  • In September 2014, Weight Watchers began syncing its apps with wearable fitness monitors such as Fitbit and Jawbone, so that the activity of members who own those devices is instantly uploaded and tracked and converted to points.[178][179][180]
  • In December 2014, Weight Watchers launched two new services: Personal Coaching and 24/7 Expert Chat.[181] Personal Coaching provides individuals with a Weight Watchers-certified coach who helps them develop an individualized weight management plan and is available via phone, text, and email for subsequent consultations.[181][182] 24/7 Expert Chat allows members all-hours access to Weight Watchers-certified coaches who can offer instant advice when users encounter weight-loss or dieting crises.[181][182]
  • In December 2015 the company rolled out a new holistic lifestyle and fitness program called “Beyond the Scale”. The program uses SmartPoints, an updating of the points system which takes into consideration the nutritional value of a food, and helps steer people away from junk foods, sugar, and saturated fat.[83][88][87][183][147] That same month, the company launched Connect, a social-media platform via its app where members receive support from other members.[184][185][186][187]
  • In December 2017, Weight Watchers introduced WW Freestyle (called WW Flex outside the U.S.),[98] which allows people to carry over unused points through the week, and lists more than 200 zero-points foods, including various lean proteins, that do not need to be tracked.[99][100][101][102]


Weight Watchers is the most widely used commercial diet in the world,[147][15] with more than 4.5 million subscribers globally as of July 2018.[188][189] In addition to the U.S., as of 2018 it has operations in countries including Canada, the UK, Germany, Switzerland, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Sweden, Australia, New Zealand, and Brazil.[1] Its main long-term competitors in the commercial weight-loss company genre are Jenny Craig and Nutrisystem, with Weight Watchers being the market leader.[190][15][191]

In U.S. News and World Report's 2018 ranking of 40 of the most popular diets, Weight Watchers was ranked No. 1 for weight loss, No. 1 for best commercial diet, tied for No. 1 for fast weight loss, tied for No. 2 for easiest diet to follow, tied for No. 3 for diabetes diets, tied for No. 5 for healthy eating; and it was ranked No. 4 for diets overall. The study noted that participants can eat what they want, no food is off-limits, and the diet is flexible and personalizable. It also noted, “Participation can be pricey, though often deemed a good value, depending on the program you choose.”[135][192][193] The overall summary stated: “Weight Watchers is a smart, effective diet. It surpassed other commercial diet plans in multiple areas, including for short- and long-term weight loss and how easy it is to follow. It’s also nutritionally sound and safe, according to experts. Among its pluses: an emphasis on group support, lots of fruits and vegetables and room for occasional indulgences.”[194]

For Weight Watchers customers who choose to attend meetings, in addition to supplying information and lifestyle tips, meetings operate as support groups that provide empathy, rapport, and mutual understanding, as well as positive reinforcement.[27][36][195]

Some critics have claimed that effective weight loss through Weight Watchers is dependent on the length of membership in the program; in 2015 psychology professor Traci Mann wrote in The Cut, “People give Weight Watchers the credit when they lose weight. Then they regain the weight and blame themselves. This sets them up to join Weight Watchers all over again, and they do.”[196] In Psychology Today a therapist who counsels binge eaters stated in 2017 that “[A] mindful integrated approach of eating, moving and living can bring a type of peace that simply doesn’t come in … [a] monthly subscription.”[197] Previously the company’s prepared foods had been criticized as containing preservatives and other additives;[198][199] as of late 2018 Weight Watchers has removed all artificial sweeteners, flavors, colors, and preservatives from products carrying the company’s name, and dropped or reformulated most of the food products it once produced.[133][200][201][202]

Leadership and spokespersons[edit]

Corporate governance[edit]

Weight Watchers’ founder Jean Nidetch was the company’s President from 1963–1973.[38][48]

Al Lippert was CEO of Weight Watchers from 1963–1981.[51] From 1978–1999, Weight Watchers was a subsidiary of Heinz. Charles M. Berger was CEO of Weight Watchers from 1982–1994,[203][204] having previously been its President.[203][38] Since 1999, the CEOs of Weight Watchers have been: Linda Huett 2000–2006;[205][206] David Kirchhoff 2007–2013;[207] Jim Chambers 2013–2016;[208][209] and Mindy Grossman 2017–present.

Grossman is also President, and is on the board of directors. Since 1999 the Chairman of the company has been Raymond Debbane, co-founder and CEO of The Invus Group.[1]


Founder Jean Nidetch was the company’s public face and spokesperson from its launch in 1963 through 1983.[210] That year, the company began recruiting specific celebrities who had lost weight on the program or were willing to, to appear in commercials and interviews touting the program and its success. These spokespersons have included: Lynn Redgrave (1983–1992),[211][212] Kathleen Sullivan (1994–1995),[54][213][214] Sarah Ferguson, the Duchess of York (1997–2007),[77][215][216] Greg Grunberg (2007),[217] Jenny McCarthy (2009),[218] Jennifer Hudson (2010–2014),[77][219][220] Charles Barkley (2011–2014),[221][222] Jessica Simpson (2012–2014),[223][222] Ana Gasteyer (2013),[224] Oprah Winfrey (2015–present),[225][226] DJ Khaled (2018–present),[227] and Kevin Smith (2018–present).[228]

See also[edit]

  • List of diets


  • ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Form 10-K: Annual Report for the fiscal year ended December 30, 2017. Weight Watchers International, Inc. U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. February 28, 2018.
  • ^ a b “About WW: Weight Watchers Reimagined”. WeightWatchers.com Retrieved October 2, 2018.
  • ^ a b c “WW (Weight Watchers): Weight Loss & Wellness Help”. WeightWatchers.com Retrieved October 2, 2018.
  • ^ a b c d e Raphael, Rina. “Here’s why Weight Watchers changed its name”. Fast Company. September 24, 2018.
  • ^ a b c d Hope, Katie. “Weight Watchers drops ‘weight’ from name”. BBC News. September 24, 2018.
  • ^ Wahba, Phil (24 September 2018). “What’s in a Name? Weight Watchers Changes Name to ‘WW'”. Fortune..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  • ^ a b c d e f g h i McFadden, Robert D. “Jean Nidetch, a Founder of Weight Watchers, Dies at 91”. New York Times. April 29, 2015.
  • ^ a b Allan, Vicky. “The Fat Controllers”. The Herald. January 7, 2006.
  • ^ Bauer, Patricia. “Jean Nidetch”. Britannica. Retrieved May 20, 2018.
  • ^ a b c d Goetz, Thomas. The Decision Tree: How to Make Better Choices and Take Control of Your Health. Rodale, Inc., 2011. pp. 70–71.
  • ^ “Investing in obesity battle, Humana may give Weight Watchers new life”. HealthcareFinanceNews.com. February 27, 2015.
  • ^ a b Ben-Yehuda, Ayala. “Little Neck neighbors saw beginnings of diet empire”. TimesLedger. July 31, 2003.
  • ^ Jolliffe, Norman. Reduce and Stay Reduced. Simon & Schuster, 1952.
  • ^ “Norman Jolliffe, Physician, Is Dead”. New York Times. August 2, 1961.
  • ^ a b c d Cohan, Peter. “Weight Watchers Winning $61 Billion War On Fat”. Forbes. November 14, 2012.
  • ^ a b c Bockmann, Rich. “Weight Watchers’ humble origins began in Deepdale”. TimesLedger. November 6, 2011.
  • ^ “72 Pounds—Weight Watchers 50th” (video). The History Factory. 2013.
  • ^ a b Horwell, Veronica. “Jean Nidetch obituary”. The Guardian. May 1, 2015.
  • ^ Sedensky, Matt. “At 87, Weight Watchers founder keeps pounds off”. San Diego Union-Tribune. Associated Press. September 2, 2011.
  • ^ Sedensky, Matt. “Weight Watchers founder Jean Nidetch dies at age 91”. San Diego Union-Tribune. Associated Press. April 29, 2015.
  • ^ Cornwell, Rupert. “Jean Nidetch: As we mourn death of Weight Watchers founder, have we learned lessons on keeping weight down?”. The Independent. May 2, 2015.
  • ^ Stern, Jane; Stern, Michael. Lexicon of Real American Food. Rowman & Littlefield, 2011.
  • ^ a b c “Jean Nidetch, founder of Weight Watchers, dies”. BBC News. April 29, 2015.
  • ^ a b Yager, Susan. The Hundred Year Diet: America’s Voracious Appetite for Losing Weight. Rodale, Inc., 2010. pp. 76–77.
  • ^ Kurland, Rachel. “Local Weight Watchers Founder Dies at 85”. The Jewish Exponent. January 24, 2018.
  • ^ Frankle, Reva T.; Yang, Mei-Uih. Obesity and Weight Control: The Health Professional’s Guide to Understanding and Treatment. Aspen Publishers, 1988. p. 375.
  • ^ a b Kanner, Bernice. “Return to Slender”. New York. February 7, 1994. pp. 16–17.
  • ^ a b c d “Jean Nidetch”. Entrepreneur. October 10, 2008.
  • ^ Langer, Emily. “Jean Nidetch, ardent promoter of Weight Watchers, dies at 91”. Washington Post. April 29, 2015.
  • ^ a b c Van der Gelder, Lawrence. “A Real Winner In Weight Losing”. New York Times. March 25, 1979.
  • ^ Ickeringill, Nan. “Weight Watchers, Inc.: They Talk Their Way Out of Obesity”. New York Times. March 20, 1967.
  • ^ “Annual Report 2006”. Weight Watchers International. February 28, 2007. p. 9.
  • ^ Hellmich, Nanci. “Late Weight Watchers founder: Food isn’t ‘remedy’ for problems”. USA Today. April 29, 2015.
  • ^ Kapner, Suzanne. “Weight Watchers Founder Jean Nidetch Dies at 91”. Wall Street Journal. April 29, 2015.
  • ^ a b Smith, Andrew F. Eating History: 30 Turning Points in the Making of American Cuisine. Columbia University Press, 2011. pp. 245–250.
  • ^ a b c d e “Weight Watchers”. Invus. Retrieved May 21, 2018.
  • ^ Gunther, Max. Instant Millionaires: The Secrets of Overnight Success. Harriman House Limited, 2010. pp. 42–45.
  • ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Pederson, Jay P. (ed). International Directory of Company Histories, Vol. 73. St. James Press, 2005. pp. 379–383.
  • ^ a b c Smith, Andrew F. Savoring Gotham: A Food Lover’s Companion to New York City. Oxford University Press, 2015. pp. 638–639.
  • ^ Calta, Louis. “New Magazine Aims to Help the Overweight; Weight Watchers, a Journal for Obese, on Newstands”. New York Times. January 18, 1968.
  • ^ Lueck, Therese. Women’s Periodicals in the United States: Consumer Magazines. Greenwood Publishing Group, 1995. pp. 436–440.
  • ^ Cornwell, Rupert. “Felice Lippert”. The Independent. February 28, 2003
  • ^ a b Metz, Robert. “Stock Weighs In And Price Soars”. New York Times. September 20, 1968.
  • ^ a b c Fallon, Ivan. Luck of O’Reilly: A Biography of Tony O’Reilly. Grand Central Publishing, 2009.
  • ^ “Jean Nidetch, Weight Watchers founder – obituary”. The Telegraph. April 30, 2015.
  • ^ Collins, Judy. Cravings: How I Conquered Food. Knopf Doubleday, 2018.
  • ^ a b c “Weight Watchers Celebrates 50th Anniversary By Honoring Its Founder – Jean Nidetch – With A Flagship Center Dedication”. PR Newswire. March 25, 2013.
  • ^ a b Lambert, Emily. “Long Island’s Diet Doyenne”. New York Post. October 31, 1999.
  • ^ “Fat Premier Health Problem”. Las Vegas Sun. May 8, 1976. p. 2A.
  • ^ McCall’s, Volume 103. McCall’s, 1976. p. 34.
  • ^ a b Thomas, Robert McG. Jr. “Albert Lippert, 72, a Founder Of Weight Watchers, Is Dead”. New York Times. March 3, 1998.
  • ^ a b Belluz, Julia. “Oprah just invested millions in Weight Watchers. But does the program even work?”. Vox. October 21, 2015.
  • ^ a b “Weight Watchers – Four Decades of Leadership In Healthy Weight Loss and Weight Management”. WeightWatchers.com. 2003. Archived from the original on February 9, 2012.
  • ^ a b c d e Hendley, Joyce (Winter 2003). “Weight Watchers at Forty: A Celebration”. Gastronomica: The Journal of Critical Food Studies. 3 (1): 16–21. doi:10.1525/gfc.2003.3.1.16.
  • ^ Beck, Ernest. “Heinz Sells Weight Watchers Interest To Artal Luxembourg for $735 Million”. Washington Post. July 23, 1999.
  • ^ a b c Vardi, Nathan. “The Mystery Man Behind Weight Watchers And The Private Equity Deal Of The Century”. Forbes. September 4, 2012.
  • ^ “Weight Watchers International Inc (WTW)”. Reuters. Retrieved May 21, 2018.
  • ^ “Form 10-K: Annual Report for the fiscal year ended January 2, 2010”. Weight Watchers International. U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. March 3, 2010.
  • ^ Hiaasen, Rob. “Institutional Ownership Of Weight Watchers International, Inc. (WTW) Is 91.7%”. PostAnalyst.com. September 18, 2018.
  • ^ Mason, Amelie. “Here’s Who Owns Weight Watchers International, Inc. (WTW)”. PostAnalyst.com. October 3, 2018.
  • ^ Melin, Anders; Ritcey, Alicia. “Oprah is Weight Watchers’ most absent board member”. Detroit News. Bloomberg News. April 3, 2017.
  • ^ Contois, Emily. “Real Men & Real Food: The Cultural Politics of Male Weight Loss”. Nursing Clio. August 15, 2017.
  • ^ “Announcing the Launch of Weight Watchers Online for Men and Weight Watchers eTools for Men”. Business Wire. March 29, 2007.
  • ^ “Weight Loss Plans for Men | Online Tools, App & More”. WeightWatchers.com. Retrieved October 2, 2018.
  • ^ a b Harcombe, Zoë. “Weight Watchers ProPoints plan – what’s it all about?”. ZoeHarcombe.com. November 1, 2010.
  • ^ a b Barclay, Eliza. “WeightWatchers Points Plan Stretching To Help Splurgers”. NPR. November 4, 2010.
  • ^ a b Clarke, Andrew (2015). “Governing the dieting self: Conducting weight-loss via the internet”. Journal of Sociology. 51 (3): 657–673. CiteSeerX doi:10.1177/1440783314522869.
  • ^ a b Gootman, Elissa. “Weight Watchers Upends Its Points System”. New York Times. December 3, 2010.
  • ^ a b O’Brien, Jeffrey M. “Weight Watchers Revamps Its Magic Formula”. Wired. December 16, 2011.
  • ^ a b Farnham, Alan. “Diets, New and Improved”. ABC News. January 12, 2011.
  • ^ a b Black, Rosemary; Goldwert, Lindsay. “Weight Watchers new Points Plus weight loss system has dieters losing their minds”. New York Daily News. December 7, 2010.
  • ^ a b Nordqvist, Christian. “Weight Watchers Finally Accepts Where Calories Come From Matters Too”. Medical News Today. November 30, 2010.
  • ^ a b Huget, Jennifer LaRue. “Weight Watchers allows ‘free’ fruit, but reservations persist”. Washington Post. December 21, 2010.
  • ^ “2009 Annual Report”. Weight Watchers. March 3, 2010.
  • ^ Cohen, Jennifer. “4 New Apps You Need To Achieve Real Weight Loss”. Forbes. May 29, 2013.
  • ^ a b DePillis, Lydia. “Internet killed the dieting star: Why Weight Watchers is floundering.”. Washington Post. August 4, 2013.
  • ^ a b c Kepos, Paula (ed). International Directory of Company Histories, Volume 192. St. James Press, 2017. pp. 465–470.
  • ^ Lutz, Ashley. “Read This Before You Join Weight Watchers”. Business Insider. December 15, 2014.
  • ^ Harwell, Drew. “Americans’ new way of losing weight has left Weight Watchers behind”. Washington Post. October 29, 2014.
  • ^ Dignan, Larry. “How apps and wearables upended Weight Watchers”. ZDNet. March 18, 2015.
  • ^ a b Picker, Leslie. “Shares of Weight Watchers Jump as Oprah Winfrey Takes a Stake”. New York Times. October 19, 2015.
  • ^ Tinker, Ben. “Weight watching? Here’s how Oprah can help”. CNN. October 20, 2015.
  • ^ a b Amidor, Toby. “3 Diets That Aren’t What You Think They Are”. U.S. News & World Report. January 22, 2016.
  • ^ Roberts, Deborah. “Weight Watchers, Oprah Winfrey Launch ‘Beyond the Scale’ Campaign”. ABC News. December 7, 2015.
  • ^ Pembleton, Meghan. “Oprah, Weight Watchers go ‘Beyond the Scale'”. The Arizona Republic. January 6, 2016.
  • ^ Byron, Ellen. “Weight Watchers’ Plan: Don’t Call It a ‘Diet’”. Wall Street Journal. December 6, 2015.
  • ^ a b Sifferlin, Alexandra. “Every Change Weight Watchers Just Made: Explained”. TIME. December 8, 2015.
  • ^ a b Comstock, Jonah. “Weight Watchers’ reinvented program Beyond the Scale includes FitBreak app”. MobiHealthNews. December 7, 2015.
  • ^ McGee, Suzanne. “Weight Watchers sees the ‘Oprah effect’ – but it may not last”. The Guardian. January 28, 2016.
  • ^ a b Wattles, Jackie. “Weight Watchers CEO calling it quits after tumultuous year”. CNN Money. September 13, 2016.
  • ^ Schlossberg, Mallory. “Weight Watchers has massive problems that even Oprah can’t fix”. Business Insider.
    February 26, 2016.
  • ^ Schlossberg, Mallory. “These before-and-after photos show why the future of Weight Watchers is uncertain”. Business Insider. August 5, 2016.
  • ^ Marsh, Julia. “Customer says Weight Watchers app is a huge mess”. New York Post. January 8, 2016.
  • ^ Graham, Meg. “Why the Weight Watchers stumble is about tech, not just Oprah”. Chicago Tribune. March 17, 2016.
  • ^ Lee, Stephanie M. “People Are Mad Because Weight Watchers’ App Has Glitches”. BuzzFeed News. November 30, 2015.
  • ^ Gensler, Lauren. “Weight Watchers Taps HSN’s Mindy Grossman As CEO”. Forbes. April 26, 2017.
  • ^ Manning, Margie. “What Oprah says about hiring HSN CEO Mindy Grossman to lead Weight Watchers”. Tampa Bay Business Journal. April 27, 2017.
  • ^ a b McKinnon, Martha. “Weight Watchers New Freestyle Program 2018”. Simple Nourished Living. November 15, 2017.
  • ^ a b “Weight Watchers Introduces New WW Freestyle: Better Results And More Flexibility Than Any WW Program”. Yahoo! Finance. December 4, 2017.
  • ^ a b Brodwin, Erin. “Weight Watchers’ new program has 200 ‘zero-point’ foods you can eat as much as you want — including eggs”. Business Insider. April 2, 2018.
  • ^ a b Asp, Karen. “Weight Watchers”. WebMD. January 10, 2018.
  • ^ a b Turner, Nick; Giammona, Craig. “Weight Watchers Jumps as New Freestyle Program Fuels Growth”. Bloomberg News. February 27, 2018.
  • ^ Bach, Natasha. “‘The World Doesn’t Need Another Diet’: Weight Watchers Is Moving Beyond Just Counting Points”. Fortune. February 28, 2018.
  • ^ Armental, Maria. “Weight Watchers Looking to Expand Beyond Dieting”. Wall Street Journal. February 27, 2018.
  • ^ “Weight Watchers (WTW) Announces Strategic Vision to Make Wellness Accessible to All”. StreetInsider.com. February 7, 2018.
  • ^ Associated Press. “Weight Watchers slims down name to WW”. Chicago Sun-Times. September 24, 2018.
  • ^ Kline, Daniel B. “Weight Watchers renewed interest has moved beyond the Oprah effect”. USA Today. May 30, 2018.
  • ^ Badkar, Mamta. “Weight Watchers shares pumped by upbeat results”. Financial Times. May 3, 2018.
  • ^ Giammona, Craig. “Weight Watchers Jumps After Reporting More Subscribers Than Ever”. Bloomberg News. May 3, 2018.
  • ^ Sorvino, Chloe. “How Weight Watchers CEO Mindy Grossman Is Democratizing Wellness”. Forbes. June 23, 2018.
  • ^ Farrell, Sean. “How the Oprah effect helped Weight Watchers regain Americans’ trust”. The Guardian. August 8, 2018.
  • ^ Blankenhorn, Dana. “Grossman Is Engineering a Real Weight Watchers Stock Turnaround”. InvestorPlace.com. September 12, 2018.
  • ^ a b Maidenberg, Micah. “Weight Watchers Changes Name as It Shifts Mission”. Wall Street Journal. September 24, 2018.
  • ^ “Newsroom”. Corporate.WW.com. Retrieved October 6, 2018.
  • ^ a b c d “Weight Watchers Becomes WW, Reinforcing Its Mission to Focus on Overall Health and Wellbeing”. Corporate.WW.com. September 24, 2018.
  • ^ Burch, Sean. “Weight Watchers Sheds Its Name, Looks to Keep Oprah Momentum Moving Forward”. The Wrap. September 24, 2018.
  • ^ “Weight Watchers Changes Its Name”. Newser. September 24, 2018.
  • ^ Hosie, Rachel. “Weight Watchers Rebrands As WW In Bid To Distance Itself From Dieting”. The Independent. September 25, 2018.
  • ^ a b c Wischhover, Cheryl. “As ‘dieting’ becomes more taboo, Weight Watchers is changing its name”. Vox. September 24, 2018.
  • ^ a b “Weight Watchers to change its name, offer new programs”. 6 ABC. September 29, 2018.
  • ^ a b c d Wahba, Phil. “Weight Watchers Changes Name to ‘WW’ in Big Bet on Wellness”. Fortune. September 24, 2018.
  • ^ a b Butler, Sarah. “Weight Watchers plans tech rebrand to take on wellness industry”. The Guardian. September 24, 2018.
  • ^ a b Reese, Ashley. “Weight Watchers Is Pivoting to Wellness”. Jezebel. September 24, 2018.
  • ^ a b Ferris, Robert; LaVito, Angelica. “Weight Watchers renames itself to ‘WW’ as consumers want to be well, not to diet”. CNBC. September 24, 2018.
  • ^ a b MacKenzie, Macaela. “The New Weight Watchers Doesn’t Want To Talk About Weight — WW Is All About Wellness”. Forbes. September 26, 2018.
  • ^ a b Copelan, Christine. “Weight Watchers Changes Name “. Parade. September 24, 2018.
  • ^ Sherman, Elisabeth. “Weight Watchers Has a New Name, Will Focus on ‘Wellness'”. The Kitchn. September 24, 2018.
  • ^ Hiltzik, Michael. “First Oprah, now a scientific study: Weight Watchers offers wary investors another story”. Los Angeles Times. February 22, 2016.
  • ^ a b Saaim, Palwasha. “WTW Stock: Don’t Bet On Weight Watchers International, Inc.”. ProfitConfidential.com. October 20, 2015.
  • ^ a b Gobe, Marc. Emotional Branding: The New Paradigm for Connecting Brands to People.
    Skyhorse Publishing, 2010. p. 232.
  • ^ Ronteltap, Amber; van Trijp, Hans; Berezowska, Aleksandra; Goossens, Jo (March 2013). “Nutrigenomics-based personalised nutritional advice: in search of a business model?”. Genes & Nutrition. 8 (2): 153–163. doi:10.1007/s12263-012-0308-4. PMC 3575884. PMID 22903899.
  • ^ a b Lauchlan, Stuart. “In pursuit of health and wellness – Fitbit, Weight Watchers digitally disrupt their business models”. Diginomica.
    March 13, 2018.
  • ^ a b Garcia, Tonya. “Weight Watchers is shifting from weight loss to wellness as ‘healthy is the new skinny’”. MarketWatch. March 4, 2018.
  • ^ Yunsheng, MA; Pagoto, Sherry L.; Griffith, Jennifer A.; Merriam, Philip A.; Ockene, Ira S.; Hafner, Andrea R.; Olendzki, Barbara C. (October 2007). “A Dietary Quality Comparison of Popular Weight-Loss Plans”. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 107 (10): 1786–1791. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2007.07.013. PMC 2040023. PMID 17904938.
  • ^ a b “What is Weight Watchers Diet?”. U.S. News and World Report. Retrieved May 21, 2018.
  • ^ Lauchlan, Stuart. “Weighing in on the digital/offline balance at Weight Watchers”. Diginomica. March 3, 2017.
  • ^ Harwell, Drew. “Oprah grabs a slice of Weight Watchers, but the diet giant might still be doomed”. Washington Post. October 19, 2015.
  • ^ “Digital Plan: Online Wellness & Weight Loss Tools”. WeightWatchers.com. Retrieved October 2, 2018.
  • ^ “Studio Plan: Weight Loss & Wellness Group Meetings”. WeightWatchers.com. Retrieved October 2, 2018.
  • ^ “Personal Weight Loss & Wellness Coaching Plan”. WeightWatchers.com. Retrieved October 2, 2018.
  • ^ a b “Company Overview of Weight Watchers International, Inc.”. Bloomberg. Retrieved May 21, 2018.
  • ^
    Zerden, Sheldon. The Best of Health. Warren H. Green Inc., 2004. p. 349.
  • ^ “Fight flab with a diet that counts calories”. San Bernardino Sun. May 20, 1974.
  • ^ Lavin, Norman. Manual of Endocrinology and Metabolism. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2012. p. 550.
  • ^ a b McKinnon, Martha. “What Was The Old Weight Watchers Plan Like In The 1960s?”. Simple Nourished Living. January 17, 2013.
  • ^ Carpender, Dana. “The Original Weight Watchers Plan”. HoldTheToast.com. May 15, 2015.
  • ^ a b c d e f g h i j Barnett, Megan. “Chapter 8: The Weight Watchers Diet”. In: Apovian, Caroline; Brouillard, Elizabeth; Young, Lorraine (eds). Clinical Guide to Popular Diets. CRC Press, 2018. pp. 113–124.
  • ^ DiValentino, Ariana. “The pros and cons of Weight Watchers, according to medical professionals”. Insider. August 29, 2018.
  • ^ Haberman, Clyde; Johnston, Laurie. “Notes on People”. New York Times. April 24, 1979.
  • ^ a b Blumenthal, Deborah. “Taking Fitness in Stride”. New York Times. November 27, 1983.
  • ^ Weight Watchers. Weight Watchers 50th Anniversary Cookbook. St. Martin’s Press, 2013. p. xv.
  • ^ McCall’s, Volume 110. McCall’s, 1982. p. 601.
  • ^ “WW 1980 Plan”. Weight Loss and Food Thoughts. April 27, 2011.
  • ^ “Diet and eating”. Organic Remedies. January 9, 2017.
  • ^ “Weight Watchers Food Plan Diet Cookbook”. Kirkus Reviews. 1982.
  • ^ Chavez, Tim. “Diet Franchise Enjoys Robust Success”. The Oklahoman. March 11, 1984.
  • ^ Nidetch, Jean. Weight Watchers Quick Start Plus Program Cookbook: Including Personal Choice Food Selections. New American Library, 1986.
  • ^ Myers, Gerry. Targeting the New Professional Woman: How to Market and Sell to Today’s 57 Million Working Women. Probus, 1993. p. 200.
  • ^ a b “Weight Watchers International, Inc. Corporate Backgrounder”. Weight Watchers. Retrieved May 21, 2018.
  • ^ “The At Work Program”. Weight Watchers. 2009.
  • ^ Stoffel, Jennifer. “A New Breed of Dieter Watches Weight at the Workplace”. New York Times. November 26, 1989.
  • ^ McKinnon, Martha. “Why I Think The Old Weight Watchers Exchange Program 1980s/1990 (Quick Success) Was Better Than Points”. Simple Nourished Living. July 11, 2015.
  • ^ Ewell, Vickie. “Looking for the Old Weight Watchers Exchange Plan?”. Life After Low Carb. March 17, 2015.
  • ^ “WW 1989 Plan”. Weight Loss and Food Thoughts.
    April 27, 2011.
  • ^ Salzman, Marian; Matathia, Ira; O’Reilly, Ann. Buzz: Harness the Power of Influence and Create Demand. John Wiley & Sons, 2003. p. 66.
  • ^ McDonough, John; Egolf, Karen. The Advertising Age Encyclopedia of Advertising. Routledge, 2015.
  • ^ Mansfield, Helen. “After 45 years, Weight Watchers remains popular with participants”. Lake County Journal. January 2, 2007.
  • ^ a b c Scott, Jennifer R. “When Did Weight Watchers Start?”. VeryWellFit.com. May 26, 2017.
  • ^ a b Barnett, Suzanne; Barnett, Jennifer; West, Bev; Lesman, Jennifer Barnett; Barnett, Amy. 3 Fat Chicks on a Diet: How Three Ordinary Women Battle the Bulge — and How You Can Too!. Macmillan, 2008. p. 77.
  • ^ Scott, Jennifer R. “Weight Watchers Momentum Plan”. VeryWellFit.com. January 23, 2018.
  • ^ “Momentum Plan – Simply Filling Technique”. WW Cheat Sheets. Retrieved May 21, 2018.
  • ^ “Weight Watchers Momentum Program”. PEERtrainer. December 27, 2008.
  • ^ Hellmich, Nanci. “New Weight Watchers 360 plan unveiled”. USA Today. December 2, 2012.
  • ^ Genge, Amanda. “Introducing Weight Watchers 360°”. WeightWatchers.com. Retrieved May 21, 2018.
  • ^ McKinnon, Martha. “The Weight Watchers 360 Program”. Simple Nourished Living. December 4, 2012.
  • ^ Kosner, Anthony Wing. “Weight Watchers 360: Mobile Apps Can Break Hard Habits With Easy-to-Follow Steps”. Forbes. December 17, 2012.
  • ^ McConnell, Alaina. “Weight Watchers CEO: ‘Willpower Is Completely Overrated'”. Business Insider. December 6, 2012.
  • ^ Pai, Aditi. “Weight Watchers integrates Jawbone, Fitbit data into app”. MobiHealthNews. September 11, 2014.
  • ^ Hall, Chris. “Weight Watchers now plays nice with Fitbit and Jawbone”. Pocket-Lint.com. September 11, 2014.
  • ^ Lamkin, Paul. “Weight Watchers teams up with Fitbit for ProPoints boost”. Wareable. December 2, 2014.
  • ^ a b c Huddleston Jr., Tom. “Weight Watchers rolls out new online services, coaching for the holiday season”. Fortune. December 15, 2014.
  • ^ a b Hallett, Vicky. “Weight Watchers gets personal with new coaching program”. Washington Post. December 16, 2014.
  • ^ Gibson, Caitlin. “Holistic or horrifying? Not everyone loves Weight Watchers’ new program.”. Washington Post. December 24, 2015.
  • ^ Comstock, Jonah. “Weight Watchers’ reinvented program Beyond the Scale includes FitBreak app”. MobiHealthNews.com. December 7, 2015.
  • ^ Carusillo, Claire. “Is Weight Watchers Connect the Only Good Social Network?”. Racked. April 28, 2016.
  • ^ Buonomo, R. “Weight Watchers Social Media Takeover”. University of Waterloo, Social Media for Business Performance. February 14, 2017.
  • ^ Brooker, Rosina. “Weight Watchers Connect is Supporting Weight Loss on Social Media”. SocialSongbird.com. May 4, 2016.
  • ^ Weight Watchers International, Inc. “Form 10-Q for the quarterly period ended June 30, 2018”. U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. August 7, 2018.
  • ^ “Weight Watchers Announces Strong Second Quarter 2018 Results”. PR Newswire. August 6, 2018.
  • ^ Kaplan, Karen. “Weight Watchers, Jenny Craig most reliable for weight loss, study says”. Los Angeles Times. April 6, 2015.
  • ^ “Measuring Weight Watchers’ Wide Moat”. Seeking Alpha. September 23, 2013.
  • ^ “U.S. News Best Diets: How We Rated 40 Eating Plans”. U.S. News and World Report. January 3, 2018.
  • ^ “Best Diets”. U.S. News and World Report. Retrieved May 21, 2018.
  • ^ “#4 Weight Watchers Diet”. U.S. News and World Report. January 3, 2017.
  • ^ “Weight Watchers International, Inc.”. Hoovers. June 2016.
  • ^ Mann, Traci. “Oprah’s Investment in Weight Watchers Was Smart Because the Program Doesn’t Work”. The Cut. October 29, 2015.
  • ^ Anderson Kari. “Dieting, Weight and Making Peace with Food”. Psychology Today. January 31, 2017.
  • ^ Lieber, Chavie. “Weight Watchers and the End of Dieting”. Racked. August 13, 2015.
  • ^ Campbell, Abby. “Weight Watchers meals processed with over 50 ingredients”. Natural Health 365. November 1, 2015.
  • ^ Vanian, Jonathan. “How Weight Watchers and Ford Are ‘Redesigning’ Their Businesses”. Fortune. June 27, 2018.
  • ^ Dantes, Damanick. “Weight Watchers CEO: Define Your Purpose and Act on It”. Fortune. August 2, 2018.
  • ^ Bomey, Nathan. “Weight Watchers rebrands as WW, eliminates artificial ingredients in focus on wellness”. USA Today. September 24, 2018.
  • ^ a b Princeton Alumni Weekly. May 3, 1982. pp. 59–60.
  • ^ “Deaths: Berger, Charles Martin”. New York Times. December 10, 2008.
  • ^ “Form 10-K: Annual Report for the fiscal year ended December 28, 2002”. Weight Watchers International. U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. March 28, 2003.
  • ^ “RC2 Announces Appointment of Linda A. Huett and Peter J. Henseler to its Board of Directors”. Business Wire. March 20, 2007.
  • ^ Dave Kirchhoff at LinkedIn. Retrieved May 21, 2018.
  • ^ “Weight Watchers Names James Chambers President and CEO”. Weight Watchers. August 1, 2013. Archived from the original on November 12, 2013.
  • ^ Vardi, Nathan. “Weight Watchers CEO Resigns As Oprah Winfrey’s $1 Billion Golden Touch Is Gone”. Forbes. September 12, 2016.
  • ^ “Jean Nidetch”. PBS. Retrieved May 21, 2018.
  • ^ Fisher, Luchina. “Vanessa Redgrave ‘Grieving and Glorying’ After Sister Lynn Redgrave’s Death”. ABC News. May 13, 2010.
  • ^ “Lynn Redgrave”. TCM. Retrieved May 21, 2018.
  • ^ Janofsky, Michael. “A former TV star is reborn as an all-too-human spokeswoman for a Weight Watchers’ campaign”. New York Times. March 9, 1994.
  • ^ Pratt, Steven. “Fight Fat With Fiber”. Chicago Tribune. February 22, 1995.
  • ^ Lamothe, Keisha. “Weight Watchers’ famous faces”. CNN Money. May 16, 2013.
  • ^ Williams, Grace L. “The Oprah Effect: Weight Watchers Ambassadors Over The Years”. Forbes. October 24, 2015.
  • ^ “Celebrity Weight Watchers Endorsers”. Parade. June 5, 2012.
  • ^ Lamothe, Keisha. “Weight Watchers’ famous faces”. CNN Money. May 16, 2013.
  • ^ Lamothe, Keisha. “Weight Watchers’ famous faces”. CNN Money. May 16, 2013.
  • ^ “Jennifer Hudson Parts Ways With Weight Watchers After 80-Pound Weight Loss”. Huffington Post. May 15, 2014.
  • ^ Lamothe, Keisha. “Weight Watchers’ famous faces”. CNN Money. May 16, 2013.
  • ^ a b Horovitz, Bruce. “Weight Watchers: Butts are in for 2015”. USA Today. December 26, 2014.
  • ^ Lamothe, Keisha. “Weight Watchers’ famous faces”. CNN Money. May 16, 2013.
  • ^ Newman, Andrew Adam. “Twitter Posts Lead Weight Watchers Online to a New Spokeswoman”. New York Times. March 27, 2013.
  • ^ Sblendorio, Peter.
    “Oprah Winfrey stars in first Weight Watchers commercial, says there’s no time like present to lose weight”. New York Daily News. December 28, 2015.
  • ^ Mango, Alison. “Just in Time for the New Year, Here Is Oprah’s First Weight Watchers Ad”. Health. December 29, 2015.
  • ^ Pullen, John Patrick. “Weight Watchers Teamed Up With DJ Khaled and Its Stock Immediately Skyrocketed”. Fortune. January 2, 2018.
  • ^ Kuperinsky, Amy. “Kevin Smith, down 32 pounds, becomes a Weight Watchers ambassador”. NJ.com. April 23, 2018.
  • External links[edit]

    • WW Official website
    • Media related to Weight Watchers at Wikimedia Commons

    Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WW_International